Personal and Social Health Education (PSHE)
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Key Stage 1: Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

1) Pupils should be taught:

  1. to recognise what they like and dislike, what is fair and unfair, and what is right and wrong
  2. to share their opinions on things that matter to them and explain their views
  3. to recognise, name and deal with their feelings in a positive way
  4. to think about themselves, learn from their experiences and recognise what they are good at
  5. how to set simple goals.

Preparing to play an active role as citizens

2) Pupils should be taught:

  1. to take part in discussions with one other person and the whole class
  2. to take part in a simple debate about topical issues
  3. to recognise choices they can make, and recognise the difference between right and wrong
  4. to agree and follow rules for their group and classroom, and understand how rules help them
  5. to realise that people and other living things have needs, and that they have responsibilities to meet them
  6. that they belong to various groups and communities, such as family and school
  7. what improves and harms their local, natural and built environments and about some of the ways people look after them
  8. to contribute to the life of the class and school
  9. to realise that money comes from different sources and can be used for different purposes.

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

3) Pupils should be taught:

  1. how to make simple choices that improve their health and well-being
  2. to maintain personal hygiene
  3. how some diseases spread and can be controlled
  4. about the process of growing from young to old and how people's needs change
  5. the names of the main parts of the body
  6. that all household products, including medicines, can be harmful if not used properly
  7. rules for, and ways of, keeping safe, including basic road safety, and about people who can help them to stay safe.

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

4) Pupils should be taught:

  1. to recognise how their behaviour affects other people
  2. to listen to other people, and play and work cooperatively
  3. to identify and respect the differences and similarities between people
  4. that family and friends should care for each other
  5. that there are different types of teasing and bullying, that bullying is wrong, and how to get help to deal with bullying.

Breadth of study

5) During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to:

  1. take and share responsibility [for example, for their own behaviour; by helping to make classroom rules and following them; by looking after pets well]
  2. feel positive about themselves [for example, by having their achievements recognised and by being given positive feedback about themselves]
  3. take part in discussions [for example, talking about topics of school, local, national, European, Commonwealth and global concern, such as 'where our food and raw materials for industry come from']
  4. make real choices [for example, between healthy options in school meals, what to watch on television, what games to play, how to spend and save money sensibly]
  5. meet and talk with people [for example, with outside visitors such as religious leaders, police officers, the school nurse]
  6. develop relationships through work and play [for example, by sharing equipment with other pupils or their friends in a group task]
  7. consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in everyday life [for example, aggressive behaviour, questions of fairness, right and wrong, simple political issues, use of money, simple environmental issues]
  8. ask for help [for example, from family and friends, midday supervisors, older pupils, the police] .

 

Key Stage 2: Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

1) Pupils should be taught:

  1. to talk and write about their opinions, and explain their views, on issues that affect themselves and society
  2. to recognise their worth as individuals by identifying positive things about themselves and their achievements, seeing their mistakes, making amends and setting personal goals
  3. to face new challenges positively by collecting information, looking for help, making responsible choices, and taking action
  4. to recognise, as they approach puberty, how people's emotions change at that time and how to deal with their feelings towards themselves, their family and others in a positive way
  5. about the range of jobs carried out by people they know, and to understand how they can develop skills to make their own contribution in the future
  6. to look after their money and realise that future wants and needs may be met through saving.

Preparing to play an active role as citizens

2) Pupils should be taught:

  1. to research, discuss and debate topical issues, problems and events
  2. why and how rules and laws are made and enforced, why different rules are needed in different situations and how to take part in making and changing rules
  3. to realise the consequences of anti-social and aggressive behaviours, such as bullying and racism, on individuals and communities
  4. that there are different kinds of responsibilities, rights and duties at home, at school and in the community, and that these can sometimes conflict with each other
  5. to reflect on spiritual, moral, social, and cultural issues, using imagination to understand other people's experiences
  6. to resolve differences by looking at alternatives, making decisions and explaining choices
  7. what democracy is, and about the basic institutions that support it locally and nationally
  8. to recognise the role of voluntary, community and pressure groups
  9. to appreciate the range of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom
  10. that resources can be allocated in different ways and that these economic choices affect individuals, communities and the sustainability of the environment
  11. to explore how the media present information.

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

3) Pupils should be taught:

  1. what makes a healthy lifestyle, including the benefits of exercise and healthy eating, what affects mental health, and how to make informed choices
  2. that bacteria and viruses can affect health and that following simple, safe routines can reduce their spread
  3. about how the body changes as they approach puberty
  4. which commonly available substances and drugs are legal and illegal, their effects and risks
  5. to recognise the different risks in different situations and then decide how to behave responsibly, including sensible road use, and judging what kind of physical contact is acceptable or unacceptable
  6. that pressure to behave in an unacceptable or risky way can come from a variety of sources, including people they know, and how to ask for help and use basic techniques for resisting pressure to do wrong
  7. school rules about health and safety, basic emergency aid procedures and where to get help.

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

4) Pupils should be taught:

  1. that their actions affect themselves and others, to care about other people's feelings and to try to see things from their points of view
  2. to think about the lives of people living in other places and times, and people with different values and customs
  3. to be aware of different types of relationship, including marriage and those between friends and families, and to develop the skills to be effective in relationships
  4. to realise the nature and consequences of racism, teasing, bullying and aggressive behaviours, and how to respond to them and ask for help
  5. to recognise and challenge stereotypes
  6. that differences and similarities between people arise from a number of factors, including cultural, ethnic, racial and religious diversity, gender and disability
  7. where individuals, families and groups can get help and support.

Breadth of study

5) During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to:

  1. take responsibility [for example, for planning and looking after the school environment; for the needs of others, such as by acting as a peer supporter, as a befriender, or as a playground mediator for younger pupils; for looking after animals properly; for identifying safe, healthy and sustainable means of travel when planning their journey to school]
  2. feel positive about themselves [for example, by producing personal diaries, profiles and portfolios of achievements; by having opportunities to show what they can do and how much responsibility they can take]
  3. participate [for example, in the school's decision-making process, relating it to democratic structures and processes such as councils, parliaments, government and voting]
  4. make real choices and decisions [for example, about issues affecting their health and well-being such as smoking; on the use of scarce resources; how to spend money, including pocket money and contributions to charities]
  5. meet and talk with people [for example, people who contribute to society through environmental pressure groups or international aid organisations; people who work in the school and the neighbourhood, such as religious leaders, community police officers]
  6. develop relationships through work and play [for example, taking part in activities with groups that have particular needs, such as children with special needs and the elderly; communicating with children in other countries by satellite, e-mail or letters]
  7. consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in life [for example, encouraging respect and understanding between different races and dealing with harassment]
  8. find information and advice [for example, through helplines; by understanding about welfare systems in society]
  9. prepare for change [for example, transferring to secondary school] .

 

Key Stage 3: Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

1) Pupils should be taught:

  1. to reflect on and assess their strengths in relation to personality, work and leisure
  2. to respect the differences between people as they develop their own sense of identity
  3. to recognise how others see them, and be able to give and receive constructive feedback and praise
  4. to recognise the stages of emotions associated with loss and change caused by death, divorce, separation and new family members, and how to deal positively with the strength of their feelings in different situations
  5. to relate job opportunities to their personal qualifications and skills, and understand how the choices they will make at key stage 4 should be based not only on knowledge of their personal strengths and aptitudes, but also on the changing world of work
  6. to plan realistic targets for key stage 4, seeking out information and asking for help with career plans
  7. what influences how we spend or save money and how to become competent at managing personal money.

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

2) Pupils should be taught:

  1. to recognise the physical and emotional changes that take place at puberty and how to manage these changes in a positive way
  2. how to keep healthy and what influences health, including the media
  3. that good relationships and an appropriate balance between work, leisure and exercise can promote physical and mental health
  4. basic facts and laws, including school rules, about alcohol and tobacco, illegal substances and the risks of misusing prescribed drugs
  5. in a context of the importance of relationships, about human reproduction, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, HIV and high-risk behaviours including early sexual activity
  6. to recognise and manage risk and make safer choices about healthy lifestyles, different environments and travel
  7. to recognise when pressure from others threatens their personal safety and well-being, and to develop effective ways of resisting pressures, including knowing when and where to get help
  8. basic emergency aid procedures and where to get help and support.

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

3) Pupils should be taught:

  1. about the effects of all types of stereotyping, prejudice, bullying, racism and discrimination and how to challenge them assertively
  2. how to empathise with people different from themselves
  3. about the nature of friendship and how to make and keep friends
  4. to recognise some of the cultural norms in society, including the range of lifestyles and relationships
  5. the changing nature of, and pressure on, relationships with friends and family, and when and how to seek help
  6. about the role and importance of marriage in family relationships
  7. about the role and feelings of parents and carers and the value of family life
  8. to recognise that goodwill is essential to positive and constructive relationships
  9. to negotiate within relationships, recognising that actions have consequences, and when and how to make compromises
  10. to resist pressure to do wrong, to recognise when others need help and how to support them
  11. to communicate confidently with their peers and adults.

Breadth of study

4) During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to:

  1. take responsibility [for example, for carrying out tasks and meeting deadlines such as taking assembly, running the school newspaper]
  2. feel positive about themselves [for example, by taking part in a public performance]
  3. participate [for example, in developing and putting into practice school policies about anti-bullying; in an action research project designed to reduce crime and improve personal safety in their neighbourhood]
  4. make real choices and decisions [for example, about options for their future, based on their own research and career portfolios]
  5. meet and work with people [for example, people who can give them reliable information about health and safety issues, such as school nurses, community drug awareness workers]
  6. develop relationships [for example, by working together in a range of groups and social settings with their peers and others; by being responsible for a mini-enterprise scheme as part of a small group]
  7. consider social and moral dilemmas [for example, how the choices they make as consumers affect other people's economies and environments]
  8. find information and advice [for example, about the risks of early sexual activity, drug misuse, self-defence for keeping safe]
  9. prepare for change [for example, by anticipating problems caused by changing family relationships and friendships, and by preparing for new styles of learning at key stage 4] .

 

Key Stage 4: Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

1) Pupils should be taught:

  1. to be aware of and assess their personal qualities, skills, achievements and potential, so that they can set personal goals
  2. to have a sense of their own identity and present themselves confidently in a range of situations
  3. to be aware of how others see them, manage praise and criticism, and success and failure in a positive way and learn from the experience
  4. to recognise influences, pressures and sources of help and respond to them appropriately
  5. to use a range of financial tools and services, including budgeting and saving, in managing personal money
  6. about the options open to them post-16, including employment and continuing education and training, and about their financial implications
  7. to use the careers service to help them choose their next steps, negotiate and plan their post-16 choices with parents and others, develop career management skills, and prepare and put into practice personal action plans.

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

2) Pupils should be taught:

  1. to think about the alternatives and long- and short-term consequences when making decisions about personal health
  2. to use assertiveness skills to resist unhelpful pressure
  3. the causes, symptoms and treatments for stress and depression, and to identify strategies for prevention and management
  4. about the link between eating patterns and self-image, including eating disorders
  5. about the health risks of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, early sexual activity and pregnancy, different food choices and sunbathing, and about safer choices they can make
  6. in the context of the importance of relationships, how different forms of contraception work, and where to get advice, in order to inform future choices
  7. to seek professional advice confidently and find information about health
  8. to recognise and follow health and safety requirements and develop the skills to cope with emergency situations that require basic aid procedures, including resuscitation techniques.

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

3) Pupils should be taught:

  1. about the diversity of different ethnic groups and the power of prejudice
  2. to be aware of exploitation in relationships
  3. to challenge offending behaviour, prejudice, bullying, racism and discrimination assertively and take the initiative in giving and receiving support
  4. to work cooperatively with a range of people who are different from themselves
  5. to be able to talk about relationships and feelings
  6. to deal with changing relationships in a positive way, showing goodwill to others and using strategies to resolve disagreements peacefully
  7. about the nature and importance of marriage for family life and bringing up children
  8. about the role and responsibilities of a parent, and the qualities of good parenting and its value to family life
  9. about the impact of separation, divorce and bereavement on families and how to adapt to changing circumstances
  10. to know about the statutory and voluntary organisations that support relationships in crisis
  11. to develop working relationships with a range of adults, including people they meet during work experience, personal guidance and community activities.

Breadth of study

4) During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to:

  1. take responsibility [for example, by representing the school to visitors and at outside events]
  2. feel positive about themselves [for example, by gaining recognition for the role they play in school life, such as organising activities for younger pupils or working in a resource centre]
  3. participate [for example, in an initiative to improve their local community; in challenging activities involving physical performance, public performance or organised events outside the school]
  4. make real choices and decisions [for example, about their priorities, plans and use of time; about their choices post-16, with regular review and support]
  5. meet and work with people [for example, through activities such as work experience and industry days; through having an employer as a mentor]
  6. develop relationships [for example, by discussing relationships in single and mixed sex groups]
  7. consider social and moral dilemmas [for example, young parenthood, genetic engineering, attitudes to the law]
  8. find information and provide advice [for example, by providing peer support services to other pupils]
  9. prepare for change [for example, in relation to progression to further education and training] .

See also PSHE Decision making & informed choice